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Introduction to Information Technology

Introduction of Information Technology
Introduction of Information Technology

Introduction of Information Technology:-

A PC (personal computer) is a microcomputer.  A PC is a single-user system, designed to fit on top: hence the word Personal. The IBM PC was introduced in the early eighties and since then has been modified and improved. Subsequent PCs have been designed to run any software written for preview versions of the PC.  Many other manufacturers have produced compatible computers, that is computers that work in the same manner as the IBM PC and use the same software. These are often known as clones. Many developments took place in the computer industry before work truly began on the machines that became known as personal computers. For example, in conjunction with Harvard University, IBM created the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, the first large-scale device that could process lengthy calculations, in 1944. More than eight feet tall, the five-ton machine, known as Mark I, housed nearly 500 miles of wire and 765,000 parts. Some industry experts consider Mark I the world’s first computer. In 1951, Ken Olsen, who went on to found Digital Equipment Corp., and Jay Forrester developed the first real-time computer, the Whirlwind, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). That year, the U.S. Bureau of Census began using the UNIVAC I computer to hold data. In 1952, IBM launched a computer designed for scientific calculations, the IBM 701. The vacuum tubes used in the 701 were smaller and easier to replace than the switches used in earlier machines. Remington-Rand developed the world’s first high-speed printer for the UNIVAC in 1953. IBM employee John Backus created the FORTRAN programming language the following year. Japan developed its first computers when NEC Corp. created NEC-1101 and NEC-1102 in the mid-1950s. The IBM 705 machine, launched at roughly the same time, was one of the world’s first general-purpose business computers. Its success helped to Remington-Rand, maker of the UNIVAC, from its first-place spot in the new computer market.

Algorithm of Information Technology by Digital Ranger:-

This is a problem-solving technique. An algorithm can be defined as a step by step procedure particular problem. It consists of English like statements. Each statement must be precise and well to solve a defined to perform a specific operation. When these statements are executed for a given set of conditions, they will produce the required results.
Characteristics of an Algorithm every algorithm is characterized
1. Input: It may accept zero or more inputs. by the following five important characteristics.
2. Output: It should produce at least one output (result). 3. Definiteness: Each instruction must be clear, well-defined, and precise. There should not be any ambiguity.
4. Fineness: It should be a sequence of finite instructions. That is, it should end after a fixed time. It should not enter into an infinite loop.
5. Effectiveness: This means that operations must be simple and are carried out at a fixed time at one or more levels of complexity. It should be effective whenever traced manual for the results. Computer programming languages are required to check the definiteness and effectiveness of each instruction of the algorithm.

Algorithmic Notations While writing algorithms the following notations are considered.

1. Name of the algorithm: It specifies the problem to be solved.

2. Step number: Identification tag of instruction and it is an unsigned positive integer.

3. Explanatory comment: It follows the step number and describes the operation. It should be written within a pair of square brackets.

4. Termination: It specifies the end of the algorithm. It is generally a STOP statement in the last instruction in the algorithm.

Example: Write an algorithm to compute the area of a circle.  Algorithm: Area of a circle

Step 1: Read radius
Step 2: [Compute the area]
Area = 3.142 x radius x radius Step  3:
[Print the area]
Print ‘Area of a circle=’, Area Step 4: [End
of algorithm]

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